Open Letter to the World Medical Association on Conscientious Objection

The World Medical Association is currently revising its International Code of Medical Ethics. The draft revision that was shared in 2021 required doctors with a conscientious objection to ensure “effective and timely referral to another qualified physician”.

There have since been a series of meetings about the revision, most recently in Washington on 11-12 August. The WMA now seems minded to pull back from the uncompromising language in the consultation. However, this draft still needs to go to the WMA Council to be approved and presented at the WMA General Assembly in Berlin from 5-8 October for adoption.

In response to this concerning development, the following letter signed by over 250 professors, directors of research centres, physicians, and others concerned with medical ethics, urges the WMA not to impose an obligation on physicians to refer patients for procedures that the physician sincerely and reasonably considers unethical.


We the undersigned hold that to fulfil their professional duties to patients, to uphold the integrity of the medical profession, and to avoid harm to society as a whole, physicians must commit themselves to acting ethically in the practice of medicine and must always refrain from actions that they judge to be unethical. The duty of a physician to practise with conscience includes the duty not to act contrary to conscience.

A physician who, in good conscience, and in line with a reasonable body of medical opinion, judges a procedure to be harmful, discriminatory, unjust or otherwise unethical must not be placed under a professional, contractual or legal obligation to identify and refer to another healthcare professional who would provide the procedure. This stance is articulated and embodied in the WMA policy on euthanasia and assisted suicide which states that:

No physician should be forced to participate in euthanasia or assisted suicide, nor should any physician be obliged to make referral decisions to this end.

There are wider implications of making effective referral compulsory in the context of conscientious objection. For example, if a physician who objects in conscience to a legally-sanctioned medical procedure is obliged to identify and make effective referral to another physician who does not object, then in some jurisdictions a physician who objected to participation in “enhanced interrogation”, or to capital punishment, or to force feeding of a prisoner who is on hunger strike, or to “conversion therapy”, could be forced to facilitate these procedures by effective referral. However, to require a conscientious objector to facilitate delivery of a procedure to which they have a serious ethical objection is a direct attack on their conscience and moral integrity.  

A principled conscientious objection is always to a procedure and not to a person. Physicians must not refuse to treat a particular patient or group of patients because of beliefs about them unconnected with the medical propriety of the procedure. In particular, physicians must not refuse to treat criminals or enemy combatants or refuse to treat the health consequences of the patient’s way of life, choices, or beliefs.

A physician must ensure that conscientious objection is exercised in a way that takes full account of their duty of care for the life and health of the patient. The physician should also seek to minimise any disruption of patient care. If a clinician cannot in good conscience provide what the patient requests, the physician should, where appropriate, respectfully explain the reasons for the decision and should, where appropriate, inform the patient of other options that are available to them, including the option to seek a transfer of care to some other healthcare professional. However, the physician is not ethically obliged to provide, and must not be coerced into providing, effective referral of a patient for procedures that the physician sincerely and reasonably considers unethical.

Professor David Albert Jones, MA MA MSt DPhil. Director, Anscombe Bioethics Centre, Oxford, UK; Professor of Bioethics, St Mary's University, Twickenham, UK; Research Fellow, Blackfriars Hall, Oxford, UK [*].

Professor Lani Ackerman, MD, FAAFP. Professor of Medical Education and Family Medicine, Director of Clinical Skills, Diplomat ABFM, CAQ Geriatrics, CTropMed, Diplomat ABQIURP, TCU School of Medicine, Fort Worth, TX, USA.

Professor Emmanuel Agius, SThB STh MA SThD. Professor of Religious and Philosophical Ethics, University of Malta, Malta.

The Right Honourable Professor the Lord Alton of Liverpool, KCSG, KCMCO. Visiting Professor, Liverpool Hope University; Honorary Fellow and Former Professor of Citizenship, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK.

Professor Paul S Appelbaum, MD. Dollard Professor of Psychiatry, Medicine, and Law, Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA.

Professor Jonathan Barasch, MD PhD. Professor of Medicine, Pathology and Cell Biology. Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.

Professor Jraj Benca, MD PhD. Professor of Surgery, St Elizabeth University of Health and Social Work, Bratislava, Slovakia.

Professor Rommy von Bernhardi, MD. School of Medicine, Universidad San Sebastian, Chile.

Professor Jeffrey P. Bishop, MD, PhD. Professor of Philosophy, Saint Louis University, MO, USA.

Professor John Bonnar, MD FRCOG FRCPI. Emeritus Professor of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Fellow of Trinity College, University of Dublin, Ireland.

Professor Franz-Josef Bormann, PhD. Professor für Moral Theology, University of Tübingen, Kath.-Theol. Fakultät; Tübingen, Germany.

Professor Matthew Braddock, PhD. Professor of Philosophy, University of Tennessee, Martin, TN, USA.

Professor Charles C. Camosy, PhD. Professor of Medical Humanities, Creighton University School of Medicine (Arizona);  Msgr Curran Fellow of Moral Theology, St Joseph Seminary, NY, USA.

Professor Patricia Casey, FRCPsych FRCPI MD. Consultant in Liaison Psychiatry, Hermitage Medical Clinic, Dublin and Professor Emeritus of Psychiatry, University College, Dublin, Ireland.

Professor Bogdan Chazan. Professor of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Jan Kochanowski University, Kielce, Poland.

Professor Bohumil Chmelík, MD PhD. Professor Emeritus of Public Health, Trnava University, Trnava, Slovakia.

Professor Carlos Centeno Cortés. Professor of Palliative Medicine, Department of Clinical Training of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Navarra.

Professor Farr Curlin, MD. Josiah C Trent Professor of Medical Humanities, Professor of Medicine, Co-Director, Theology, Medicine, and Culture Initiative, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.

Professor Stephen Cusack, MB BSc FRCSI FRCEM. Retired Professor of Emergency Medicine, University College Cork, Ireland.

Professor Dr Eduardo Cuvertino. Professor Diagnostic Imaging, National University of Córdoba, Argentina.

Professor Ján Ďačok SJ, MD ThD PhD. Professor of Bioethics and Moral Theology, University of Trnava, Bratislava, Slovakia.

Professor M Anthony David. Professor of Physiology, Prathima Institute of Medical Sciences, Karimnagar, India.

Professor Jason T Eberl, PhD. Professor and Director, Albert Gnaegi Centre for Health Care Ethics, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO, USA.

Professor Gerald Fogarty, BScm MBBS FRANZCR PhD. Radiation Oncologist, Sydney Adventist Hospital, Sydney, Australia.

Professor Stephen Gatt, MOM OAM KGCC*HS KMG(Ob) JP MD MRCS MASCH MAICD AFRACMA et alii FANZCA FRCA FCICM FACHSM et eundem. Professor, Anaesthesia and Reanimation, Udayana University; Associate Professor, Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Emergency Medicine, University of New South Wales; Senior Staff Specialist, Royal Hospital for Women and Prince of Wales and Sydney Children's Hospitals, Australia.

Prof. Pál Géher. Medical Director, Hospitaller Brothers of St John of God, Budapest, Hungary.

Professor Robert P George, JD DPhil DCL DLitt. McCormick Professor of Jurisprudence, Princeton University, New Jersey, USA; Former Chairman, U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom; Former Member, U.S. President's Council on Bioethics; Former Member, U.S. Commission on Civil Rights; Former Member, UNESCO World Commission on the Ethics of Scientific Knowledge and Technology.

Professor Leslie Hartley Gise, MD. Clinical Professor, Psychiatry, J A Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii, HI, USA.

Professor Jozef Glasa, MD PhD. Internist, Clinical Pharmacologist, Hepatologist, and Bioethicist, Slovak Medical University in Bratislava, Institute of Medical Ethics and Bioethics, Bratislava, Slovakia.

Professor Eva Grey, MD, PhD, MHA. Professor of Ethics and Bioethics; Internist. St Elisabeth University of Health and Social Work, Bratislava, Slovakia.

Professor Mark K. Huntington, MD PhD FAAFP. Centre for Family Medicine; and University of South Dakota Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls, SD, USA.

Professor T. Swaroop Kanth, MS. Professor (designated) of ENT, Guntur Medical College, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Professor David R Katz, MB ChB PhD FRCPath. Emeritus Professor of Immunopathology, University College London, UK.

Professor John Keown, MA DPhil PhD DCL. Rose F Kennedy Chair of Christian Ethics, Kennedy Institute of Ethics, Georgetown University, Washington DC, USA.

Professor Timothy Kleinig, PhD MBBS (Hons). Department of Neurology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, Australia.

Professor Vladimir Krcmery, FRCP FACP. Professor in Medicine and Public Health, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava, Slovakia.

Professor Patrick Lee, PhD. John N and Jamie D McAleer Professor of Bioethics; Director, Centre for Bioethics, Franciscan University of Steubenville, OH, USA.

Professor Donald W Landry, MD PhD. Professor and Chair of Medicine, Columbia University, NY, USA.

Professor Jorge Edgardo Martínez Barrera, PhD. Departamento de Humanidades, Universidad Católica San Pablo, Arequipa, Perú.

Professor José Diogo Martins, MD PhD. Professor of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universidade Católica Portuguesa, Lisbon, Portugal.

Professor George L Mendz, MSc MBioeth PhD. School of Medicine, Sydney; University of Notre Dame, Australia.

Professor Michael Mego. Professor of Oncology, Second Department of Oncology, Comenius University, Faculty of Medicine and National Cancer Institute, Bratislava, Slovakia.

Professor Mariana Mrazova MD, MSc, PhD, MHA. Professor in Public Health, Doctor of Internal Medicine, St Elisabeth University of Public Health and Social Work, Bratislava / Institute for Prevention and Intervention, Slovakia.

Professor Anselm Winfried Mueller, PhD. Recurring Visiting Professor of Ethics, University of Chicago, IL, USA.

Professor Odunayo M. Oluwatosin. Professor of Surgery, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Professor Chima Onoka. Professor of Public Health, University of Nigeria, Enugu, Nigeria.

Professor Christoph Ostgathe. Palliative Care Physician, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany.

Professor Emeritus Zoltan George Nagy. Research Neurologist and Tutor in PhD program, Department of Vascular Neurology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary.

Professor David Paton, PhD. Chair of Industrial Economics, Nottingham University Business School, UK.

Professor Thomas Pink, BA PhD. Professor of Philosophy, King’s College London, UK.

Professor Romano Pirola, MBBS (USyd) MD (UNSW) FRACP. Honorary Professor, SWS Clinical School, UNSW Medicine, Australia.

Professor Lukas Radbruch, MD. Chair of Palliative Medicine, University Hospital Bonn, Germany.

Professor Philip Reed. Professor of Philosophy, Canisius College, Buffalo, NY, USA.

Professor David E. Richmond MDus, MB, ChB,  MD, CNZM, FRACP, FRCP(London). Professor Emeritus, Geriatric Medicine, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand.

Professor Dr Roman Rolke. Director Department of Palliative Medicine, RWTH Aachen University, Germany.

Professor Sheila Rutledge Harding, MD MA FRCPC. Professor, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Canada; Hematologist, Saskatchewan Health Authority, Saskatoon SK, Canada.

Professor Alexandre Laureano Santos, MD, PhD. Professor Internal Medicine (retired), Lisbon, Portugal.

Professor Charles Savona-Ventura, MD DScMed FRCOG AccCOG FRCPI FRCP (Edin). Professor and Head of Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology; Director, Centre of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Culture, University of Malta.

Professor Pierre Schembri-Wismayer, MD PhD(Glas). Associate Professor of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine & Surgery, University of Malta, Msida, Malta.

Professor Neil Scolding, PhD FRCP. Professor of Clinical Neurosciences emeritus, University of Bristol, UK; Gulu University Faculty of Medicine, Uganda; Neurology Dept, Gloucestershire Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, UK.

Professor David Smith. Professor of Healthcare Ethics, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland.

Professor O Carter Snead, JD. Director, de Nicola Centre for Ethics and Culture; Professor of Law, Concurrent Professor of Political Science, University of Notre Dame, IN, USA.

Professor Margaret Somerville, AM DSG FRSC DCL. Professor of Bioethics, Affiliate of the Institute for Ethics and Society, University of Notre Dame, Australia.

Professor Joseph B Stanford, MD, MSPH. Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of Utah, UT, USA.

Professor Jozef Suvada, MD MSc MPH PhD. Member of the WHO; Professor, E.D., physician, paediatrician, tropic diseases, infectious disease, paediatric cancer and palliative care, Academic institution and Medical Centre, Bratislava, Slovakia.

Professor Gabor Naray-Szabo. Professor of Chemistry, Budapest, Hungary.

Professor Marie-Jo Thiel. Professor of Ethics and Moral Theology, University of Strasbourg, France.

Professor Christopher Tollefsen, Ph.D. Professor of Philosophy, University of South Carolina, USA.

Professor EH Walters, MA DM DSc FRCP FRACP FCCP FThorSoc. Emeritus Professor of Medicine, University of Tasmania; Hon Professorial Fellow in Epidemiology, University of Melbourne; Emeritus Senior Physician, Royal Hobart Hospital; Emeritus Director Respiratory Medicine, and Hon Physician in General Medicine, The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Australia.

Professor Leeroy William, BSc (Hons) MBBS MRCGP FAChPM MSc. Clinical Director, Eastern Health Clinical School, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.

Professor John Wyatt, FRCP FRCPCH. Emeritus Professor of Neonatal Paediatrics, Ethics and Perinatology, University College London, UK.

Dr Teodor Bachleda, PhD, MBA. Doctor / Lecturer of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine and Pain Medicine, GP. Comenius University, Faculty of Medicine, Bratislava, Slovakia, St. Josef Hospital, Vienna, Austria.

Associate Professor Sheryl Beard MD. Family Physician, Wichita, KS, USA.

Associate Professor Megan Best, PhD MAAE BMed(Hons) AssocDegTh GradDip(QHR) ClinDip(PallMed). Associate Professor of Bioethics, Institute for Ethics and Society, The University of Notre Dame Australia; Honorary Associate Professor, Sydney Medical School, Faculty of Medicine and Health, the University of Sydney, Australia.

Associate Professor Ján Bielik, MD PhD. Associate Professor of Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Health, Trencin University of Alexander Dubcek, Trencin, Slovakia.

Dr Elizabeth Bothamley Rex, MA, PhD. Lecturer of Bioethics, Donum Vitae Institute, Cromwell, CT, USA.

Associate Professor J. Donald Boudreau, BSc., MD, FRCP(C). Institute of Health Sciences Education, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

Associate Professor Dr Eugene Breen. Associate Clinical Professor, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital and UCD, Dublin, Ireland.

Dr Thana C de Campos-Rudinsky, BA MPhil DPhil. Assistant Professor of Ethics, Law, and Global Public Policy, Pontifical Catholic University of Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Associate Professor Maria Cigolini, MBBS FRACGP FAChPM GradDip (PallMed). Palliative Medicine Physician & Clinical Associate Professor of Medicine, Sydney, Australia.

Associate Professor Andrew M Cole MBBS (Hons) FAFRM. Chief Medical Officer & Senior Staff Specialist, HammondCare, St Leonards, NSW, Australia.

Associate Professor Anne Doherty, MB BCh BAO MMedSc MD FRCPsych. Associate Professor in Psychiatry, Consultant Liaison Psychiatrist (Psycho-oncology), Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin & University College Dublin.

Associate Professor Sinéad Donnelly, MD FRCPI FRACP. Wellington Hospital, Aotearoa, New Zealand.

Associate Professor Philip Dooley, MD. Clinical Associate Professor and Residency Program Director, University of Kansas School of Medicine, Wichita, KS, USA.

Dr J Guy Edwards, FRCPsych FRCP FRCGP(Hon) HonMFPH. Consultant Psychiatrist (retired), Southampton University Hospitals, Former Visiting Professor, Prince of Songkla University, Thailand.

PD Dr Christian Erk. Lecturer in Ethics and Management, University of St Gallen, Switzerland.

Assistant Professor María Alejandra Florenzano Valdés. Assistant Professor of Internal Medicine and Medical Ethics Courses; Medical Doctor, Internist; MA Ethics and Anthropology. Resident im Santiago de Chile. Member of Bioethics Centre, Medicine Faculty, Pontifical Catholic University of Chile.

Dr Thomas Finegan, BTh MA PhD. Lecturer in Department of Theology and Religious Studies, Mary Immaculate College, Ireland.

Dr Christopher Garrett, MB, BCh, BAO (Dublin), BeL (Rome). Former Professor of Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Centre, Texas, USA. Current seminarian, St Patrick's National Seminary, Maynooth, Ireland.

Assistant Professor Helena Glasova, MD PhD. Clinical Pharmacologist, Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Slovak Medical University in Bratislava, Slovakia.

Dr Lisa Gilbert, FAAFP. Assistant Clinical Professor, Ascension Via Christi Family Medicine Residency, Wichita, KS, USA.

Dr Martin Haehnel. Doctor of Philosophy (Bioethics; Applied Philosophy), Chair of Applied Philosophy, University of Bremen, Germany.

Dr Mark Hanley, BSc(USyd) MBBS (UQLD) FRACGP Grad Dip of Health Prof Ed (UNDA). Senior Lecturer School of Medicine, Sydney University of Notre Dame Australia.

Dr Annette Hanson, DLFAPA. Forensic Psychiatrist and Assistant Professor, University of Maryland.

Dr Anthony Herbert, MBBS FRACP. Senior Lecturer, School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

Dr Eleanor M Hitchen, BMedSci (Hons I) MBBS PhD MM (Int Med). Clinical Associate Lecturer, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney; Medical Registrar, Westmead Hospital, Sydney, Australia.

Dr Madelyn Hicks, FRCPsych FAPA. Associate Professor of Psychiatry, UMass Chan Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA.

Dr Gavin E Jarvis, MA (Cantab) MA PhD VetMB FHEA MRCVS. Associate Professor of Analytical Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Sunderland, UK.

Dr Jozef Kalužay, PhD. University Teacher, Physician (Internist, Hospitalist), Comenius University Bratislava, Slovakia.

MUDr Marián Kaščák, PhD. Doctor of Internal Medicine, Faculty Hospital, Trenčín, Slovakia.

Dr Johnny Khoury, MBBS BSc(Med) FRACGP DCH. Conjoint Lecturer, University of New South Wales, Australia.

Dr Jože Kociper. Psyciatrist, Radenci, Slovenia.

Dr Mark S Komrad, MD DFAPA. Faculty of Psychiatry, Johns Hopkins, Tulane, and University of Maryland, MD, USA.

Associate Professor Andrej Kravos MD, PhD. Medical Faculty, University of Maribor; Private Health Centre, Žalec, Slovenia.

Mr Sean Mackey GPHC DipPresSci. Teaching Fellow; Independent Prescribing Pharmacist. Oxford, UK.

Dr Marta Semic Marsic. Paediatrician, Ankaran, Slovenia.

Mrs Joan Marston. Lecturer and Palliative Nurse Practitioner, PallCHASE Palliative Care in Humanitarian Aid Situations and Emergencies, South Africa.

Dr Paul Masi, MD. Assistant Professor of Psychiatry, Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell; Attending Physician, Division of Inpatient Psychiatry, The Zucker Hillside Hospital, Queens, NY, USA.

Associate Professor Natasha Michael, MBChB FRACP FAChPM MRCPI MRCGP MSc. Director of Palliative Medicine, Cabrini Health; Head of Palliative Medicine, University of Notre Dame; Adjunct Associate Professor, Monash University, Australia.

Dr Melissa Moschella, PhD. Associate Professor of Philosophy, Catholic University of America, Washington DC, USA.

Associate Professor John E. Nawn, MD. Associate Professor of Clinical Medicine, Temple University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Dr Noreen O’Carroll, MA HDipEd PhD DPMSA. Lecturer in Medical Ethics, RCSI University of Medicine and Health Sciences, Dublin, Ireland.

Associate Professor Jan Porubsky, MD, PhD. Associate Professor, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia.

Dr Oyetunji Olukayode Soriyan. Senior Lecturer & Consultant Chemical Pathologist, College of Medicine University of Lagos and Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria.

Associate Professor Odette Spruijt, PhD, FRACP. Doctor of Medicine, Launceston Specialist Palliative Care, Launceston, Australia.

Associate Professor László Surján, MD. Former Vice-President of the European Parliament (retired), and Signatory of the Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism, Hungary.

Dr Xavier Symons. Post-doctoral Research Fellow, Plunkett Centre for Ethics, The Australian Catholic University, Australia.

Associate Professor Dr Olinda Timms. Associate Professor in the Division of Health and Humanities and Lecturer in Medical Ethics, St John’s Research Institute, Bangalore.

Dr Bernadette Tobin, AO. Director, Plunkett Centre for Ethics, St Vincent’s Hospital Sydney and Calvary Healthcare; Reader in Philosophy, Australian Catholic University, Australia.

Dr Roger Teichmann, DPhil. Lecturer in Philosophy, St Hilda’s College, Oxford, UK.

Dr Jana Patrícia Trizuljakova, PhD. University Lecturer, Bioethicist; Institute of Social Medicine and Medical Ethics, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University Bratislava, Slovakia.

Dr Anna Maria Vella, PhD (London) ISAM MSc Public Health(Malta) MA Bioethics(London) PG Diploma in Women’s Health (Dublin). Senior Lecturer University of Malta; Clinical Chair, Sedqa; Clinical Consultant with a special interest in Addictions, Msida, Malta.

Dr Christopher Wojtulewicz, BA, PhD. Education and Research Officer, Anscombe Bioethics Centre; Research Fellow, Blackfriars Hall, Oxford, UK.

Associate Professor Supreeya Wongtrangan. Doctor of OB/GYN, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Thailand.

Dr Woroma Wonodi. Doctor and Lecturer, Rivers State University Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Associate Professor Mark Yates, FRACP. Geriatrician, Grampians Health, Deakin University, Ballarat, Victoria, Australia.

Frances Abbott, RN. Registered Nurse (retired), Northern Territory, Australia.

Dr Aris Abeleda. Family Medicine Physician, Greenwood, IN, USA.

Dr Josephine Lee Aguhob Glaser, FAAFP. Doctor of Medicine / Dedicated Senior Medical Center / ChenMed / St Louis, MO, USA.

Dr Philip Alton. Junior Doctor (A&E), Liverpool, UK.

Prakash George Arunachalam. Theologian, Nagercoil, Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu, India.

Dr Sara Attard, BClinSc. Medical Registrar, St Vincent's Hospital, Sydney, Australia.

Dr Marija Avsenik. Paediatrician, Community Health Centre, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Dr Elena Bachledova. GP; Resident in Specialty Training, Klinik Donaustadt, Vienna, Austria.

Dr Inis Jane Bardella, FAAFP. Academic Family Physician, Retired Professor, Global Medical Education Consultant, Fayetteville, AR, USA.

Dr Helen Barrow. General Practitioner, Mallow Medical Centre, Mallow, County Cork, Ireland.

Dr Jeffrey Barrows, DO MA (Ethics). Senior VP Bioethics and Public Policy, Christian Medical & Dental Associations, Bristol, TN, USA.

Dr Aisling Bastible, MB BCH BAO. Medical Physician, Dublin, Ireland.

Dr Amber Bazler, MD. Family Medicine Physician, Tulsa, OK, USA.

Dr Michael Thomas Beets. Doctor of Medicine, Texas Palliative Care, Tyler, TX, USA.

Dr Murrough Birmingham. GP, Letterkenny, Co. Donegal, lreland.

Dr Ivonne Stephanie Blandine, MPH. GP, Talitakum Medical Centre, Jakarta Timur, Indonesia.

Dr Alex Bolek. HIV & AIDS Technical Advisor for Maternal and Child Health Integrated Program and Integrated Service Delivery Program (MCHIP/ISDP), South Sudan.

David J Bolton, BSc (UCD, Dublin), MA (Trinity College, Dublin), MEd (UNSW, Sydney, Australia). Chairman, Warrane College Council, UNSW, Sydney Australia Former Council Member, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

Dr Frances Booth. AM. Ophthalmologist (retired), New South Wales, Australia.

Dr Phil Boyle, MICGP MRCGP. Fertility Specialist, Dublin, Ireland.

Dr Paul Brady, BA MA LLM DPhil. Barrister-at-Law (King’s Inns), Member of the Bar of Ireland, Dublin, Ireland.

Dr Antonia Braithwaite. Retired Medical Doctor, Cambridge, UK.

Dr Stephen Robert Brennan, MBBS MRCS FRCP (Lond & Glas). General & Respiratory Physician (retired), Sheffield. UK.

Dr Niall Breslin, MRCPI. Consultant Gastroenterologist and Hepatologist, Tallaght University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.

Dr Norella Broderick, BCL BL Esq(NY) MB BAO BCh MCPsychI MRCPsych. Senior Registrar, Department of Psychiatry, St Vincent's University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.

Dr Louis Brown, JD. Executive Director, Christ Medicus Foundation, Maryland; Director, Centre for Law and the Human Person, Catholic University Columbus School of Law, Washington DC, USA.

Dr John Bruchalski, FACOG OBGYN. President, Divine Mercy Care, Fairfax, VA, USA.

Dr John Buchanan. Consultant Psychiatrist (retired), Australia.

Dr Gordon Buhwa, MB ChB. General Physician, St Catherine’s Hospital, Uganda.

Dr Ery Yuliando Nepa Bureni. GP, TC Hillers Hospital / Maumere, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia.

Dr Bethan Burling. GP trainee, South-East England, UK.

Dr Marija Burnik. Paediatrician, Community Health Centre, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Dr Sara Buscher, JD. Chair Euthanasia Prevention Coalition, USA.

Dr Robert A. Carter MD, MPH. Family Practice, Public Health, and Director of the Department of Community Health and Development, Kijabe, Kenya.

Dr Anne Carus. Life FertilityCare Physician (retired), UK.

Dr Abel Y. Castro. Baylor Scott and White Health System, TX, USA.

Dr Ciaran Clarke, CPsychI. Consultant Psychiatrist, University College Dublin, Ireland.

Dr M. Colchero. GP, Spain.

Dr Nathalie Steiner Collet. Internal Medicine Specialist FMH, Palliative Care Practice, Bernex, Switzerland.

Dr Stephen Collins. Teaching Fellow and Medical Doctor, East Surrey Hospital, UK.

Dr Thomas Cornwell. National Medical Director, Village Medical at Home, Chicago, IL, USA.

Dr David Crick MB ChB, FRCGP. GP (retired), UK.

Dr Brendan Crowley. GP, Cork, Ireland.

Dr Catherine Crowley, MBBS(Hon) GCUT ACMA. New South Wales, Australia.

Dr Siobhan Crowley. GP, Killarney, Ireland.

Dr Elizabeth Cullen, MB BCh BAO MSc PhD. Community Health Doctor (retired), County Kildare, Ireland.

Dr Maria Cunningham. GP, Ardwick Medical Practice, UK.

Dr Adrian Dabscheck. Palliative Medicine Consultant, Western Health, Victoria, Australia.

Catherine Darlison. Medical Student, University of Cambridge, UK.

Dr Saïk de La Motte de Broöns de Vauvert, MRCPsych. Consultant Psychiatrist, Oxford, UK. 

Dr Ladislav Deak. Paediatrician, Oncologist Haematologist, Palliative Care expert. Children University Hospital, Košice, Slovakia

Dr Vincenzo Defilippis. Director of the Forensic Medicine and Clinical Risk Unit, ASL Bari, Italy.

Dr Sebastian Desando, MBChB BMedSci. Core Psychiatry trainee, Severn Postgraduate Medical Education School of Psychiatry.

Dr Eileen Miriam Devlin, MB MRCGP. Foyle Hospice, Derry, UK.

Dr Robert Devlin, MBBS BSc MRCS. Specialty Doctor of Anaesthesia, Queen Elizabeth Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, UK.

Dr Audrey Dillon, MB MRCPI MSc. Consultant Hepatologist, St Vincents University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.

Dr Janez Dolinar. Specialist in Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Novo Mesto General Hospital, Slovenia.

Rev Dr Conor Donnelly, MB BCh BAO STD. Chaplain, Kianda School, Nairobi, Kenya.

Dr J E Doohan, MB DCH MRCGP. Great James Street Health Centre, Derry, UK.

Mr Simon R Donahoe, MBBS FRACS. Honorary Consultant Plastic Surgeon, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Victoria, Australia.

Dr Kevin Doran, MA PhD. Chair, Consultative Group on Bioethics, Irish Catholic Bishops Conference, Maynooth, Ireland.

Anne Dunne. AMSPAR Qualified Medical Secretary, St Thomas’s and Guy’s NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Dr Daniel Dyer. Doctor of Medicine, Decatur, GA, USA.

Dr Bridget Ellul, MBChB MRCPath FRCPath. ELSI Adviser to Biobank, Centre for Molecular Medicine and Biobanking, University of Malta, Msida, Malta.

Dr Wes Ely, MD MPH. Internist, Pulmonologist, and Critical Care physician, Co-Director of the CIBS Centre, Vanderbilt University Medical Centre, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

Francis Etheredge, BA, MA, PGCert, PGCHE. Bioethical Author, England, UK.

Dr Chris Evans, MA MSc BA MBBS MRCP. Consultant Physician, Birmingham, UK.

Dr Peter Eves. Doctor; Junior Clinical Fellow in Emergency Medicine, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, UK.

Dr István Faragó. Doctor of Dentistry, Family Dental Office, Budapest, Hungary.

Dr Adrian J Farrell, BSc(Hons) MBChB MD FRCP. Consultant Physician, Worcestershire, UK.

Mr Vernon Fernandes, MSc. Clinical Physiologist, London, UK.

Dr Jennifer Brito Ferreira. Fortaleza, Brazil.

Naomi Fong. Disability Support Worker, Brisbane, Australia.

Dr Arunak Gadde. Ophthalmologist, Hyderabad, India.

Dr Amy Gadoud. Clinical Senior Lecturer in Palliative Medicine, Lancaster University, UK.

Dr Rafael Gómez García. Doctor of Medicine, CUDECA Hospice, Málaga, Spain.

Dr Jameela George, MBBS MIRB. Consultant Bioethicist, Nagercoil, Kanya Kumari District, Tamil Nadu, India.

Dr Magdalena Gerova, PhD. Bratislava, Slovakia.

I.R. Reinhard Gilster, MAE. Chairman of the Medical Ethics Committee, Krankenhaus St Joseph-Stift, Bremen, Germany.

Dr Deirdre Gleeson, MB FFOM MICGP HDOH DCH DObs. Specialist in Occupational Health, Dublin, Ireland.

Dr Bairbre Golden, MB FCAI MBA CPE FIMC. Consultant Anaesthetist, Dublin, Ireland.

Dr Dianne Grocott. Psychiatrist, Belmont, Victoria, Australia. 

Dr Jose L. Guerrero. Physician, Luke Society, Sioux Falls, SD, USA.

Dr Maria Victoria Mena Gutiérrez. Specialist in Gynaecology, Private practice. Zaragoza, Spain.

Dr Orla Halpenny, MICGP MMedSc. General Practitioner, Dublin, Ireland.

Dr Robert Alastair Hardie, MB BS FRCS. General Practitioner (retired), Wiltshire, UK.

Associate Professor Marion Harris, MBBS FRACP. Medical Oncologist, Victoria, Australia.

Dr Janina M Harvey. Consultant (retired), Dalserf, Scotland, UK.

Dr James Haslam, BSc (Hons) DPMSA MBBS AKC FRCA FFICM. Consultant in Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine, Salisbury NHS Foundation Trust, Salisbury, Wiltshire, UK.

Nicole D Hayes, MPA. Executive Vice President, American Academy of Medical Ethics, Tennessee, USA.

Rebecca Heans. Nurse, Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Mrs Katherine Hickey. Registered Nurse, University of Southampton, UK.

Dr Alenka Höfferle Felc, Mag. [MSc]. Doctor of Physical and Rehabilitative Medicine (retired), Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Dr William Holdsworth MBChB BMedSci. Junior Doctor, Birmingham, UK.

Dr Catherine Hollier, BMed FRACGP. General Practitioner, New South Wales, Australia.

Dr Lisa Honkanen, MD. Geriatrician, New York, USA.

Dr Zoreslava Horodenchuk PhD, Gynaecologist in private practice, Lviv, Ukraine.

Mairead Hughes. Nursing Home Pharmacist, Clonskeagh Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.

Dr Janet Hurley. Family Physician, Whitehouse, TX, USA.

Dr Anulika Igboaka. Doctor of Psychiatry, London, UK.

Dr Katrina Ison, MB BS FRACGP. Sydney, Australia.

Dr Ayodele Olukayode Iyun. Plastic, Reconstructive, and Aesthetic Surgeon, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Dr Ziga Jan. Klinikum Schwarzach, Austria.

Dr András Jávor. Former Secretary of State in the Ministry of Welfare, Budapest, Hungary.

Dr Ian M Jessiman, MA FRCP DCH. General Practitioner (retired), UK.

Dr Ian Johnston, MB BCh BAO MRCPCH. Community Paediatrician, Croydon, Surrey, UK.

Dr Randy Juanta, BMBS. General Practitioner, Adelaide, Australia.

Lisa Jukes. Heart Failure Specialist Nurse, Dorset Healthcare, UK.

Dr Irena Jurca. Doctor of Occupational Medicine; Specialist in Occupational Medicine, Traffic, and Sport, Ministry of Defence, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Dr Tomaž Jurca, MSC. Doctor of and Specialist in Infectious Diseases and Intensive Medicine, Institute of Oncology, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Dr Theodorus Hedwin Kadrianto, DDS, OMS. Oral Medicine Specialist, Indonesia; AEO for South East Asia & Oceania, International Christian Medical and Dental Association.

Dr Mirjam Vide Katič. Doctor of Family Medicine, Medicinski Centre, Škocjan, Slovenia.

Dr F.X. Keane. Medical Consultant (retired), Dublin, Ireland.

Dr Dermot Kearney, MD MRCPI. Consultant Cardiologist, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Gateshead, UK.

Dr K Kemp, MbChB MRCGP. GP, Gateway Primary Care, Rotherham, UK.

Dr Ewa Kilar, PhD. Clinical Oncologist; Adiunkt, Clinical Pharmacology, UMW, Wrocław, Poland.

Dr Paul Kleinig, BAppSc(OccTher) BMBS FRACP FAChPM. Palliative Medicine Physician, Southern Australia.

Dr John Kleinsman. Director, The Nathaniel Centre for Bioethics, Wellington, New Zealand.

Patricia Knap. ABA Therapist, New York, USA.

Dr Michael Knower, FAAHPM. Hospice Medical Director (retired), St. Charles Hospice, Bend, OR, USA.

Dr Silvester Kopriva. Paediatrician (retired), Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Dr Mary-Anne Kowol, FASAM. Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA.

MUDr. Boris Kozlík. General Practitioner (retired), Slovakia.

Dr Stanislaus Ivanovich Krishnanda, MRes. General Practitioner, Indonesia.

Gollamudy Enoch Karun Kumar MBBS, GPDMRT. Radiation Oncologist, Padhar Hospital, Ghoradongri, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Carolyn Laabs, PhD MA MSN FNP RN. Nurse Practitioner (retired), Milwaukee, WI, USA.

Dr Olubunmi Ladipo. Consultant Physician, Abuja, Nigeria.

MUDr Andrea Lackova, MU. Doctor of Endocrinology, Trnava, Slovakia.

Dr Garry W Lambert, DO. Board Certified (ABIM) in Internal Medicine, Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine. Houston, Texas, USA.

Dr Philip J. Lanzisera, PhD. Clinical Psychologist, Henry Ford Health, Detroit, MI, USA.

Anne Lastman. Clinical and Post-Traumatic Counsellor, Australia.

Dr Antony Lathan, MB Bch, MRCGP, MA (Bioethics & Medical Law). Chair of Scottish Council on Human Bioethics. General Practitioner (retired) Isle of Harris, Scotland, UK.

Dr Debbie Latupeirissa, SpA(K). Doctor of Medicine, Fatmawati General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Dr Lianna Lawson DO FAAFP. Doctor; Board-Certified in Family Medicine. Lawson Family Medicine Daleville, VA, USA.

Mrs M Leahy. Helpers of God’s Precious Infants, UK.

Dr Richard Lennon, MBBS FRACP FACEM MBioeth. Emergency Medicine Specialist, Royal North Shore Hospital Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Dr David Lieuwen. Clinician, Grand Valley Medical Specialists, MI, USA.

Kendall Lim RN. Registered Nurse, Student Health Services, Edith Cowan University, Western Australia.

Liliana De Lima, MHA. Executive Director, IAHPC, Houston, TX, USA.

Dr Karen Lopez, MBBS BSc FAFRM. Rehabilitation Physician, Hornsby Hospital, New South Wales, Australia.

Dr Agustín Losada, PhD. General Secretary, CíViCa, Spain.

Dr Andy Luck. Doctor, Psychiatry, UK.

Teresa Lynch, Nurse, London, UK.

Dr Michael Alfred Lynn, MB MICGP DPhil. General Practitioner (retired), Roscommon Town, Ireland.

Dr Janina Lyons, MB BCh BAO DCH MICGP. General Practitioner (retired), Dublin, Ireland.

Dr Shane E Macaulay, MD. Partner Physician, Radiology Consultants of Washington, WA, USA.

Dr Calum MacKellar, PhD. Director of Research, Scottish Council on Human Bioethics, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK.

Rev. Dr Rod MacRorie, FRCGP. GP Training Programme Director, HEE West Midlands, UK.

Dr John Maher, FRCPC. Canadian Mental Health Association, Ontario, Canada.

Dr Sujana Malapaka. Divisional Medical Officer, India.

Dr Ian Marshall, AM AE KC*SG MB BS FRACGP. Taringa, Brisbane, Australia.

MUDr Bielik Matej. Medical Doctor, Clinical Practice, Slovakia.

Dr Sheila Matthews, MB.ChB MSc. GP (retired), Northamptonshire, UK.

Katja Maus MA. Researcher in Palliative Medicine, University Hospital Bonn, Germany.

Dr Carter Mayberry. Staff Physician, Chiricahua Community Health Centres, Inc. Benson, AZ, USA.

Dr Angela M McCallum, DMRD. Consultant Radiologist (retired), Scotland, UK.

Dr Anthony McCarthy, PhD. Director, Bios Centre, London, UK.

Dr James R. McCarty, FAAD. Dermatologist, Fort Worth, TX, USA.

Liam McCann. Healthcare Professional, Kingston, UK.

Dr Judith McEniery, MBBS (Qld). Palliative Medicine Specialist, Ipswich, Queensland, Australia.

Dr Brigid McKenna, MBBS MBioeth GradCert ULT FHEA. Coordinator Clinical Practice and Medical Ethics, Tasmanian School of Medicine, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia.

Dr Terence McQuiston. Family Physician with special focus on geriatrics (retired). Toronto, Canada.

Dr Mena Megellie, CCFP DABFM. Family Doctor in Yorkdale Medical Clinic; Surgical Assistant at Mackenzie Health Hospital in York Region, Ontario, Canada.

Brigid Meney. Director, Strategy and Mission. Catholic Health Australia.

Dr Christopher Middleton. Gastroenterologist, Royal Hobart Hospital, Tasmania, Australia.

Dr Jeanine Morelli. Clinical Associate, Department of Family, Population, and Preventive Medicine, Renaissance School of Medicine, Stony Brook University, NY, USA.

Dr J Huw C Morgan, MbChb FRCGP Cert Med Ed FHEA. GP (retired), Emeritus Director of GP training, Health Education England, UK.

Dr Cherec Morrison, IBCLC. Family Medicine Physician, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Dr Stephen Muhudhia. Doctor, The Nairobi Hospital, Kenya. 

Dr Michael Murowa, MBBS, MPH. Public Health Specialist, Malawi.

Dr Patricia Newell, MBChB FANZCA VMO. Anaesthetist, The Mercy Hospital for Women, Melbourne, Australia.

Dr Obiageli Ngwuocha. Consultant in Emergency Medicine, University Hospitals of Derby and Burton, UK.

Tamsin Nicholson, MSc MA(Hons). Medical Student, Swansea University.

Dr Donna Nielsen. Family Medicine Physician, Lisle, IL, USA.

Hui Ying Ng. Medical Student (MBBS V), University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia.

Bridget Bernadette O’Farrell. Registered General Nurse, Midwife and Health Visitor, York, UK.

A. O’Connell. Hospice Chaplain, St Joseph’s Hospice, London, UK.

Dr Pascal O’Dea, MICGP MRCGP. GP, Bagenalstown, Co. Carlow , Ireland.

Benjamin O’Flynn. Secondary School Lay Chaplain, UK.

Dr John-Paul O’Sullivan, MBChB MRCGP. General Practitioner, Glasgow, Scotland, UK.

Dr John Obeid, MB BS FRACP. Sydney, Australia.

Dr Boma Okoh. Consultant Paediatrician, Rivers State, Nigeria.

Dr Fisayo Oluwatosin. Public Health Physician, APIN / Oyo State HIV Program, Nigeria.

Dr Stephen Muhudhia Ombok. Doctor, Nairobi, Kenya.

Dr Rory Page MB, BCh, BAO, BA, FFARCSI, FJFICMI. Anaesthesiologist, Cavan General Hospital, Ireland.

Dr Mark Patterson, MBBS (Hons) FACEM. Emergency Physician, Goulburn Valley Health; Clinical Senior Lecturer, Shepparton Rural Clinical School, The University of Melbourne, Australia.

Dr Jennifer Teitelbaum Palmer. Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Dr Stephen Parnis. Consultant Emergency Physician, St Vincent’s Hospital & Royal Victorian Eye & Ear Hospital, Melbourne, Australia.

Dr Anna Pavlackova. Doctor Internal Medicine, Hospital Banovce nad Bebravou, Slovakia.

Dr Mark Perera MBChB MSc FRCP. Consultant in Audiovestibular Medicine, St George’s University Hospital, London.

Dr Udani Perera, MBBS (London) PG Dip Psychological Interventions (CBT) (Surrey). Psychiatry Doctor, London, UK.

Dr Kimberly Hogan Pesaniello. Snow Hill, Maryland, USA.

Dr Vera Petrišič. Psychiatrist (retired), Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Dr Mark Pickering MRCGP. General Practitioner and Chief Executive of the Christian Medical Fellowship, UK / Ireland.

Dr Margaret Phillips. Consultant in Rehabilitation Medicine, University Hospitals of Derby and Burton, UK.

Dr Samuel Phillips, MBChB. Emergency Department Registrar, Westmead Hospital, Sydney, Australia.

Dr Jacqueline Polus. Family Physician, Oakleaf Clinics-Pine Grove, WI, USA.

Dr Graham Poole. GP, Community General Practice and Refugee Health, Tasmania, Australia.

Dr Ewa Posner. Speciality Doctor in Child Psychiatry, Oxford, UK.

Dr Federico Potočnik. Clinician, Stanford University, CA, USA.

Dr Wojtek Rakowicz. Consultant Neurologist, Royal Hampshire County Hospital, Winchester, UK.

Dr K S Ram, DPH PhD. Consultant Dermatologist & Cosmetic Laser Surgeon, Elegance Skin and Hair Laser Clinics & Apollo Hospitals, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

Dr David Randall MA MRCP. Consultant Nephrologist, London, UK.

Monica Rapeanu, STL. Catholic Bioethicist, Archdiocese of Bucharest, Romania.

Dr David Rassam, BMBS MSc. Doctor, London, UK.

Dr Eileen Reilly. Doctor in Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Glasgow, Scotland, UK.

Dr Peter Reis, MA. GP, The Hague, Netherlands. 

Dr Javier Resa. Palliative Care Physician, Hospital Hestia Madrid, Spain.

Dr Lucy Reville. Foundation Doctor, NHS Northern Ireland, Derry, UK.

Dr Mark Riddell, MB BCH BAO. Junior Doctor, Royal Brisbane and Women’s Hospital, Australia.

Dr Michael James Roberts MB BCh BAO BSc(Hons). Foundation Year 2 Doctor, Belfast, UK.

Dr Bernadette Rojkovich. Rheumatologist and Clinical Pharmacologist in the Policlinic of Hospitaller Brothers of St Johns, Budapest; Chairman of the Hungarian Bioethics Association, Budapest, Hungary.

Dr Mark J Rollo. Family Physician, Reliant Medical Group, Massachusetts, USA.

Dr Toni Saad, MA MRCP(UK). Internal Medicine Trainee (IMT3), Gloucestershire Royal Hospital, UK.

Dr Paul Saba. Family Physician, President of the Coalition of Physicians for Social Justice.

Dr Noel Ved Sadan. Doctor of Ophthalmology, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Kothur, Mahabubnagar, India.

Dr Peter Saunders, MA MBChB FRACS. CEO, International Christian Medical and Dental Association.

Dr Miriam Sciberras, BChD(Hons) MA. Chair, Life Network Foundation, Malta.

Dr Margaret Sealey, MB ChB LRCP MRCS DA FFARCSI BDiv MA. Consultant Anaesthetist (retired), Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham, UK.

Dr Randy Sellers. Psychiatrist Private Practice, Chapel Hill,  North Carolina, USA.

Dr Cajetan Skowronski. Internal Medicine Doctor, East Sussex Healthcare Trust, UK.

Dr Nydia Rena Benita Sihombing, PhD. GP / Doctor of Medicine and Health Sciences, Semarang, Indonesia.

Dr Shobha Silva. Consultant Medical Oncologist, Sheffield, UK.

Dr Marko Šimenc. GP, Trbovlje Health Centre, Slovenia.

Dr Jose Maria Simon. Honorary President of the World Federation of Catholic Medical Associations (FIAMC); Physician, Spain.

Dr Kate Smart. Medical Doctor, New South Wales, Australia.

Alicia Smith. Cardiac Sonographer, New South Wales, Australia.

Dr Raj Kumar Songa. Office Practice, Hyderabad, India.

Dr Maggy Spence, MBBS DRCOG MRCGP. General Practitioner (retired), Chelmsford, England, UK.

Dr Johannes Abraham Spoor, MRCP (UK). Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Glasgow, UK. 

Dr Trevor Stammers, FRCGP FHEA MA. Editor-in-Chief, The New Bioethics, London, UK.

Dr David Stanley. Junior Doctor, West Midlands, UK.

Dr Mary Stavropoulou, MBBS (Melbourne University) FRACGP. Medical Practitioner and General Practitioner, Melbourne, Australia.

Dr Ana Strajnar. Paediatrician, Grosuplje, Slovenia.

Dr Andreja Štular. GP, Slovenia.

Dr Sukumar Sumith Reddy. Nazareth Mission Hospital, Israel.

Dr Peter Šuštar. Paediatrician, Health Care Centre, Medvode, Slovenia.

Celia Sutcliffe. Nurse, Brentwood, UK.

Dr Andrew Swampillai, FRCOphth PGCert. Ophthalmologist, St. Thomas’ Hospital, London, UK.

Dr Jeslyn Tengkawan, MPH. Child Health Equity Advocates, Capella Project Foundation, Indonesia.

Dr Adrian Thomas MBBS, FRANZCOG. Melbourne, Australia.

Dr Mathew S Thomas. Senior Consultant in Internal Medicine, AIPF New Delhi, India.

Dr Richard Thomas, MA MBBS. Public Policy Researcher, Christian Medical Fellowship, UK.

Dr Tony Thrasher, DO DFAPA. President, American Association for Emergency Psychiatry; Medical Director Crisis Services, Milwaukee County Behavioural Health Division, Milwaukee, USA.

Rev. Angel Tiebas. Chaplain, Barts Health NHS Trust, London, UK.

Dr Allison Tobola, MA, MS. Physician, Tyler, TX, USA.

Dr Ken Toop. Consultant Obstetrician and Gynaecologist (retired), The James Cook University Hospital, Middlesbrough, UK.

Dr Adrian Treloar, MB BS FRCP MRCPsych MRCGP. Consultant Old Age Psychiatrist; former Senior Lecturer in Old Age Psychiatry, UK.

Dr Craig Treptow, MD. President, Catholic Medical Association, USA.

Dr Marianne Turner. Physician, Sydney, Australia.

Dr John D Vidovich, MBBS FRACS FRCS(Eng). Medical Practitioner, Australia.

Mr Alan Daniel Wade, MA. Adult Education Philosophy Tutor, London, UK.

Dr Ivan Wallenfels. Gynaecologist, Gianna, Slovakia.

Dr Nicholas Walmsley, BMedSc. Paediatric Senior Resident Medical Officer, Children’s Hospital, Westmead, Sydney, Australia.

Dr Helen Watt, PhD. Senior Research Fellow, Bios Centre, London, UK.

Dr Tara E. Watson, BM DCH MRCGP. GP, NHS, Southampton.

Dr Neil Weir, OBE MA FRCS. Doctor of Medicine, Bioethicist, and Otorhinolaryngologist.

Dr Dominic Whitehouse, MB ChB MSc PG Dip Pall Med FRCP AFOM. Consultant Physician, St Wilfrid’s Hospice, Chichester, UK.

Dr Anne Williams, MB BS MRCGP DCH DRCOG MA Bioethics. General Practitioner, Glasgow, UK.

Mr Peter D. Williams, BA(Hons), GradDip, AKC. Media and Communications Manager, Anscombe Bioethics Centre, Oxford, UK.

Dr Fiona Witham, BSc MBBS MRCP FRCR. Consultant Radiologist, Queen Alexandra Hospital, Portsmouth, UK.

Dr Felicia Wong. GP, London, UK.

Dr Linda Wrede-Seaman, FAAFP FACEP FAAHPM. Washington State, USA.

Dr Joanne Wright, MMBS MGer Med FRANZCP Cert (Old Age). Old Age Psychiatrist, Hornsby Kuringai Hospital, Sydney, Australia.

Dr Linda Xu, FRACP. Geriatrician, Ryde Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Dr Leong Yoke Yeng. Doctor of Medicine, UMMC, Malaysia.

Dr Jeffrey Zavala, FAAFP. CMO Medical Group, Intermountain Healthcare MT/WY Market, USA.

Dr Nikolaus Zwicky-Aeberhard. Doctor of Internal Medicine and Rheumatology, Switzerland.

[*] All institutional affiliations listed here are for identification purposes only and not to represent the position of the institution named.

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